Types of Welding

01 - Types of Welding.png

Custom sheet metal working requires impressive skills that professional craftspersons acquire after years of trade training and practical experience. Metal working might be intimidating for the novice, but few people look at a custom-built piece without noticing the smooth joinery and precise seams you’ll see in a finished product. Most impressive of all are flawless welds that seem almost magical.

In theory, welding sounds simple. The welding process joins metal parts through fusion. That involves extremely high temperatures that melt metal and fuse the joints together. In practice, welding can be complicated. There are so many different metal types as well as differing welding techniques. No doubt you’ve heard terms like arc welding, mig welding, tig welding and gas welding.

If you’re planning to have a sheet metal project custom-built, it’s very important to understand what welding techniques your fabricator might use. That way, you’ll be in the best-educated position to approve a welding process that your fabricating company recommends. Custom metal work is a serious investment, and you need assurance you’re doing it right.

It’s easy to be confused about welding terminology. There are so many acronyms and abbreviations used in the sheet metal fabrication and welding business, and each term has its meaning and application. To help educate you on welding forms employed in custom metal work, here is a detailed explanation of welding types, terms and techniques.

Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW)

Shielded metal arc welding, or SMAW, is the oldest metal bonding form next to the ancient heating and pounding method used by blacksmiths. For countless centuries, metal workers fused their pieces together by heating them to a cherry-red temperature in a forge and then hammering seams on an anvil. That ancient technique still exists in small craft and hobby shops, but electric welding replaced blacksmith skills in the late 1800s.

By the early 20th century, electric welding reached a technological sophistication where it became mainstream in metal joinery. According to the Fabricators & Manufacturers Association, shielded metal arc welding is still the most popular form of electric welding despite many high-tech advancements made in the welding field. SMAW is easy to learn and highly versatile for a variety of metals. It’s also a very portable process, so it can be used everywhere from shops to the field.

Shielded metal arc welding is commonly called "stick welding." That’s due to the simple welding electrode, or stick component, that distinguishes it from other welding types. The term "shielded" comes from the part of this welding process where particular gasses from the melting electrode shield the fresh weld from common atmospheric gasses like oxygen and nitrogen that threaten a new weld’s integrity.

SMAW welding works on a simple principle. Positive high-voltage electric current electricity from a power grid or generator flows through heavy welding cables and into a welding electrode, or stick, mounted in a hand-held grip. The metal work surface has a grounded negative charge. Once the positive charge in the electrode makes close contact with the work surface, a blindingly bright electric arc flashes.

This energy arcing creates enormous heat in the 7,000-degree-Fahrenheit range. That causes both the welding rod and the work surface to melt and bond together. As the electrode stick dissolves into a liquid, its flux coating changes to a gas state protecting or shielding the weld pool from atmospheric forces. A slag coating forms over the cooling weld joint as it turns back to solid form. Usually, the slag gets chipped or brushed away to expose a shiny new weld.

Welders and custom sheet metal fabricators normally use stick or SMAW welding on routine jobs involving carbon steel and stainless steel. SMAW welding allows joining reasonably thick metal components due to the immense heat generation. High-quality stick welding equipment lets the welder adjust temperatures depending on the size of their work and the metal composition. Many welders claim their welded joints have stronger tensile strength than the parent or native material.

Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW)

Gas metal arc welding, or GMAW, is the second most popular welding form used in custom sheet metal fabrication. You’ll usually hear GMAW welding called "MIG welding," which comes from "metal inert gas" (MIG). In fact, the term "MIG" is so familiar in the welding world that using the acronym GMAW might puzzle even the most experienced welder. They’d probably recognize the term “heliarc” welding in place of GMAW due to the helium gas once used when the MIG process started.

The big difference between SMAW and GMAW welding is the electrode composition. Both welding forms rely on high-voltage current to create an electrically charged arc that melts both the electrode and the work surface to form a bond. However, with the GMAW or MIG welding process, the atmospheric shielding gas is artificially introduced by a separate feed rather than gassing-off from the melting electrode.

GMAW/MIG welding also employs a different electrode type. Instead of the consumable stick that melts and fumes, the MIG electrode is a continuous feed of wire from a pre-stocked spool. This metal filler is automatically fed to the weld joint and runs at a steady rate. Where the SMAW welding electrode melts down and needs constant replacement, the GMAW process allows continuous joint and seam welding.

There are no breaks or gaps in the MIG welding process. The weld is smooth and uniform, which presents far better on the finished product that the stop-and-go stick arc welding process. You get a faster and more dependable product with the gas metal arc welding technique than with the shielded metal arc welding process.

GMAW systems operate on a steady shielding flow of argon, carbon dioxide or helium gas. Some use a blended mixture of two or all three. These safe and common gasses effectively shield the new weld from oxygen and nitrogen, which immediately compromise a fresh weld and cause it to oxidize or prematurely rust as it sets up. Because argon, carbon dioxide and helium are common, they’re also inexpensive, which lowers overall welding costs.

Larger MIG welding equipment utilizes multiple electrode wire spools. You’ll find the multi-spool approach in big shops that mass-produce products. However, you’ll also find compact MIG or GMAW outfits in small fabrication facilities. Besides being economical equipment to buy, the MIG welding technique is easy to learn and highly dependable for producing cleanly welded joints.

Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW)

Gas tungsten arc welding is also called "tungsten inert gas arc welding" or "TIG arc welding." Like the SMAW and GMAW welding techniques, GTAW uses high-voltage electricity to heat the work and a metal filler rod to extremely high temperatures, causing both the work and filler to melt, pool and fuse once cooling. The primary difference with TIG welding is that it utilizes inert tungsten gas to shield the weld as it forms.

GTAW/TIG welding can also perform without fillers. Some GTAW equipment has wire reels similar to those you’d see in a heliarc or MIG system. Instead of utilizing low-cost helium, carbon dioxide or argon gasses, the TIG welding system relies on tungsten gas, which is considerably more expensive for a fabrication shop to source.

Tungsten gas has a superior advantage over its competitors. Although more expensive, tungsten gas is stable at all heat levels. GTAW welding can achieve temperatures far greater when shielded with tungsten. This makes a GTAW welding system versatile for operating outside a welding electrode or wire reel filler.

Some TIG welding processes eliminate any consumable wire, filler or electrode. They employ a non-consumable electrode that creates an immensely hot arc that causes the metal surfaces to bond or blend without an additive. Tungsten gas injection around the electrode’s tip shields the fusing metal from oxygen and nitrogen contamination.

With no filler or auxiliary material introduced to the meld, all that’s left is the original metal, now seamlessly fused together. The weld retains the same tensile strength of its native metals and is practically invincible to breakage. Because TIG welds are so precise and use original metal if operated without a filler, the welded joint is practically invisible.

The TIG or GTAW welding technique is ideal for thin and specialized metals. You’ll find TIG welders often working with aluminum projects, as aluminum is a notoriously difficult metal to weld. GTAW welding also suits brass, copper, magnesium, titanium and high-strength alloys. As a rule of thumb, TIG, or tungsten inert gas welding, suits more expensive materials and more complex metal joinery requirements.

Oxygen-Acetylene Welding (Oxy-Acetylene)

Most welding students cut their teeth on oxy-acetylene welding equipment. The oxy-acetylene process works on combustible gas heat rather than harnessed electricity. Here, a welder lights an open flame using a blended ratio of compressed oxygen and acetylene emitted from a torch head mounted on hoses connecting the gas cylinders. The torch flame heats the work surface to temperatures slightly lower than those found in SMAW and GMAW processes.

All oxygen-acetylene welding processes require fillers. With oxy-acetylene operations, that’s usually a welding rod made of metal like brass or steel. There’s no gas shielding with oxy-acetylene welding. This technique isn’t designed for the same oxygen and nitrogen protection you find in regular arc, MIG and TIG welding.

03 - Acetylene Welding.png

"Brazing" and "soldering" are two terms you’ll often hear used to refer to oxy-acetylene welding. Brazing is a moderate heat application where the metal work surfaces get heated at the same time a brazing rod melts and pours into the joint gap. Because of lower temperatures and a more gradual heating time, the weld strength is nowhere near what you’ll get with fast-acting SMAW, GMAW and GTAW welds. Brazing strength is mostly in the filler rather than the native material. It’s often employed in quick repairs rather than in custom sheet metal work.

Soldering requires even less heat. Solder is a soft metal product containing an interior liquid flux. As solder melts, the flux drips into the work joint and cleans it from dirt, oil and oxidation. Rather than repair work like brazing, you’ll find solder often used on metal joins in electrical and plumbing work. It’s almost unheard of to find solder in sheet metal fabrication.

Although oxygen-acetylene welding is suited more for light construction and metal work where the finished appearance isn’t important, there is one clear advantage to an oxy-acetylene outfit. This equipment excels at cutting metal where arc welding processes don’t. All oxy-acetylene sets have two torch heads. One is a low-heat configuration for welding, brazing and soldering. The second head is a cutting nozzle.

Types of Welding Joints and Positions

Just as there are different welding forms and equipment types, there are various welding joint types and application positions to be aware of. You’ll find these joints and positions spread across most welding facilities and applications. That ranges from custom sheet metal fabrication shops to large industrial and manufacturing facilities.

Not every piece of welding equipment works with all joints and positions. SMAC, or stick welding, is the most versatile form. But it doesn’t produce the perfection that MIG or TIG welding does. Generally, there are four welding positions where you can have any number of joint types:

 

  1. Flat WeldingThese work surfaces lay like a bench or table top. The welder approaches them from a top-down position and lets gravity help with molten flow. Flat surfaces really suit MIG and TIG welding equipment, where wire feed and gas flow works best on a straight and level surface.
  2. Horizontal Welding: This position refers to welding on a line of sight position like across an upright wall. SMAW welding using a stick electrode works well in horizontal positions where it’s more challenging to get a MIG or TIG welder balanced. Oxy-acetylene welding is also tougher on horizontal surfaces than on flat ones.
  3. Vertical Welding: Like horizontal welds, running beads on a vertical or up-and-down surface has its problems. It’s simple for a SMAW welder to strike vertical beads but not so simple for the TIG and MIG people. When possible, metal fabricators adjust their horizontal and vertical work to a flat position.
  4. Overhead WeldingBy far, overhead welding is the toughest task for any welder. Fortunately, you’ll rarely have this need in a custom sheet metal fabrication facility. Overhead welds show up in factories and industrial sites that have suspended equipment. Conventional SMAW welding equipment is the only practical solution for overhead problems.

 

Regardless of what welding position you might have, you’ll have some basic welding joint types or styles that regularly appear. Each joint has its procedures that metal welders learn proficiency at. These are the most common joints in welding:

04 - Types of Welding Joints.png

 

  • Butt joints have their work surfaces facing each other from end to end.
  • Lap joints have overlapping surfaces with mating faces on each work side.
  • T-joints intersect each other on 90-degree angles in a T-shape.intersect each other on 90-degree angles in a T-shape.
  • Corner joints touch at inside and outside corners, usually forming a right angle.
  • Edge joints are similar to butt joints but have more metal face connecting the work.

 

Custom Sheet Metal Fabrication Welding

APX York Sheet Metal is your premium metal fabrication company serving central Pennsylvania and northern Maryland. Since 1946, we’ve built a reputation for dependability and excellence in welding and fabricating outstanding custom sheet metal work as well as customer service. We’ve accomplished this by using the highest-quality materials, the best cutting-edge technologies and the most efficient welding processes.

05 - APX York Sheet Metal.png

For a request for quote (RFQ) on your custom fabricated metal projects and parts, call APX York Sheet Metal today at 717-767-2704. You can also reach us for a quote through our online contact form.

APX York Sheet Metal Wins the Manufacturers’ Association’s Manufacturer of the Year 2016 Award

While APX York Sheet Metal’s focus remains squarely on delivering superior value to our customers and investing in continuous improvement efforts, it’s important to take time to celebrate successes along the way. APX York Sheet Metal is very proud to have been awarded Manufacturer of the Year 2016 and would like to express our appreciation to The Manufacturers’ Association for this prestigious honor. 

At APX York Sheet Metal we know that to be successful, we have to work together as a team. Therefore, we’d like to thank all the members of the team who wake up early and stay up late working hard to make sure we get the job done right and exceed our customers’ expectations. Awards like this are evidence that consistency and hard work pay off – congratulations team!  

Request for Quote

The 7 Things You Should Look for in Your Sheet Metal Provider

Satisfying your customers’ needs is at the top of your list, but if your sheet metal supplier doesn’t have the same priorities as you, it could be time to re-evaluate who’s supplying your sheet metal. When seeking out a sheet metal supplier that will exceed your performance expectations, there are several factors that you need to take into consideration. Keep reading to decide if your sheet metal supplier is right for you.

1.      Quality – It almost goes without saying, but in fact it should at the top your list. If you can’t count on quality parts coming in from your sheet metal supplier, it’s time to find a new one that will surpass your quality test. Your customers don’t tolerate poor quality and you can’t either from your sheet metal supplier. Period.

2.      Delivery – While speed is important, the real key is to look for suppliers that hit the dates they commit to. This means that at times you want your supplier to push back on your due dates when they cannot meet the due date. Having that openness and trust is at the heart of any good supplier – customer relationship. The question you need to be asking isn’t ‘how quickly can you get it to me?’ but rather, ‘how confident are you that I will receive my parts when you say I will?’  The certainty that a stronger supplier provides to your supply chain beats aggressive promises and missed deliveries. It also helps if your sheet metal supplier has their own delivery trucks. This means you avoid costly, time-consuming product damages as well as shipping costs by avoiding 3rd party freight companies.

3.      Track Record/Longevity – How long has your sheet metal supplier been in business? While the two are not necessarily related, there is a solid correlation between longevity and capacity. There is truth in the axiom that ‘we’ve been around this long so we must be doing something right’, but that only goes so far. Is your sheet metal supplier modernizing their systems and equipment? Are they keeping up with the latest technology and investing in their team? These are all signs of health you want to look for in your sheet metal supplier.

4.      Price/Value – Are you getting competitive pricing? Make sure that your supplier is providing you with solid pricing. If they’re not, push to understand what the underlying cause is. Maybe there is a design-for-manufacturing conversation that needs to take place, or there needs to be a clearer picture of the purchasing forecast anticipated over the next few quarters. The number at the bottom of the quote is not the whole story, but you need to see pricing that will work for your business and allow you to provide excellent value to your customers.

5.      Responsiveness – When you call or email your sheet metal supplier, how long does it take for them to get back to you? What is the quality of that communication? Working with global customers and compressed lead-times, being able to manage changing customer demands is an important part of your business. Make sure you partner with a sheet metal supplier that is able to keep up with the dynamic nature of your needs and work alongside you to help you satisfy your customers.

6.      Willingness to Take on Tough Challenges – A true partnership requires both trust and the ability to take risks. Does your sheet metal supplier shy away from a challenge? Growing your business means incorporating new materials or technologies that allow you to outcompete.

7.      Accountability – Accountability is the foundation of trust and trust underpins every strong supplier/customer relationship. When things don’t go as planned, does your sheet metal supplier take responsibility and work to improve for the future? If not, you need to find a new sheet metal supplier. 

 

Request for Quote

About the Author:

Andy Mulkerin (General Manager of APX York Sheet Metal) has 20 years of experience leading advanced technology development programs and overseeing global manufacturing operations. He has managed production/operations within the chemical processing, electronics, and commercial nuclear industries. He has worked on multi-billion-dollar investment and infrastructure deals, as well as spent more than a decade advising US companies on how to successfully navigate the Chinese energy market. Andy led initiatives setting up fabrication operations in China to produce equipment to the ASME NQA-1 and NNSA’s HAF604 specifications.

Andy has successfully driven technology transfer initiatives for dozens of Western energy companies including Babcock & Wilcox, Bechtel, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Energy Solutions and TerraPower.  Andy is a recognized global leader in the field of US-China nuclear energy strategy and has been cited by the Wall Street Journal and the New York Times. Andy has collaborated on numerous initiatives with the US Department of Commerce and Department of Energy related to maximizing commercial opportunities for US companies in China. Additionally, Andy also was part of the core Blu-ray strategy team for Sony in Tokyo, Japan.

Andy has a BS in Chemical Engineering from Columbia University and an MBA from Harvard Business School.

Galvanizing & Galvannealing for Beginners

When deciding on which steel to spec for your next project, you may want to look at either galvanized or galvannealed steel. While not appropriate for many applications, if you’re considering an external application where rust is a factor, galvanized and/or galvannealed merit consideration.  It’s important to understand the uses of each as well as the differences. Both provide significant rust and corrosion protection, but there are material differences between the two types of zinc coated steel that should be understood.  

Galvanizing…

The process of galvanization involves steel sheet being immersed in molten zinc at 850 °F, through which a zinc layer is bonded to the steel substrate at a molecular level. Zinc protects the steel from oxidation when it is exposed to a corrosive environment, creating a protective layer at the base. While there are many applications wherein galvanized steel is the proper material, common uses include HVAC ducts, wrought iron gates, roofing, body parts of vehicles, safety barriers, balconies, and building framework. Galvanized steel has a spangled appearance, but is very durable and can withstand salt and the elements, which is useful in outdoor applications.

Galvannealing…

The Galvannealing process is very similar to that of galvanizing, but with galvannealing, the steel substrate is heated to 1050 °F. At this temperature, more iron is drawn out of the steel where it bonds with the zinc to form an alloy coating that is lower in zinc and higher in iron, than that of galvanized. This creates a stronger surface that allows for better weld (and paint) adhesion. Additionally, galvannealed steel has a scratch resistant surface and a low-luster, dull, matte finish which does not require a primer for paint, unlike galvanized steel. Galvannealed steel is often found in industries where long, reliable service life is required, such as the automotive, architectural, electric equipment, and signage industries.

So how do you know when to use each of these two materials in your application? When choosing between galvanized or galvannealed, consider these issues:

1.) Is significant welding involved? Due to the additional iron in the coating layer, galvannealed steel offers more weldability as compared to a galvanize coating.

2.) Is your product going to remain unpainted? If the answer is ‘yes’ then galvanized steel is almost certainly a better choice. Unpainted galvannealed steel will exhibit a reddish-orange appearance (the increased concentration of iron at the source leads to accelerated oxidation) when exposed to moisture. In almost all cases, this discoloration is something procurement professionals would look to avoid.

Now that you know when to use either of the coatings, let’s better understand how galvanized and galvannealed steel is spec’ed.

As discussed above, galvanize and galvanneal differ in the zinc coating/bonding process primarily due to difference in contact and exposure temperature. But for both galvanized and galvannealed materials, steel suppliers are able to adjust the thickness of the zinc coating to provide higher or lower density zinc penetration. For galvannealed steel, Type A40 is the minimum thickness of zinc coating in common use. Where the “A” indicates “Anneal” and the ‘40’ indicates that there is a nominal weight of .40 ounces of zinc/iron coating per square foot. Therefore, A60 galvannealed steel has a relatively thicker zinc/iron coating with .60 ounces of zinc/iron coating per square foot. As the thickness of the coating layer increases, it becomes relatively easier to weld and paint, but this thickness tends to correlate with cost from the mill so it is wise to not over spec your galvannealed requirements.

As with galvanized steel, the materials are denoted with a letter/number combination, but this time a “G” is used to signify ‘Galvanized’ while the number represents the same nominal weight (in ounces) per square foot. So G40 and G60 are both galvanized steel with .40 and .60 ounces of zinc per square foot respectively.

Based on the environment your product will be exposed to, it’s important to make sure you specify both the steel type as well as the coated zinc thickness to ensure the best performance of the material over the life time of your application.

Experienced fabricators can work with you and your engineering team to make sure that you’re using the best material for your application. Contact your supplier to discuss how you can optimize the best lifetime value of your purchasing decisions. 

York Sheet Metal Materials
Request for Quote

About the Author:

Andy Mulkerin (General Manager of APX York Sheet Metal) has 20 years of experience leading advanced technology development programs and overseeing global manufacturing operations. He has managed production/operations within the chemical processing, electronics, and commercial nuclear industries. He has worked on multi-billion-dollar investment and infrastructure deals, as well as spent more than a decade advising US companies on how to successfully navigate the Chinese energy market. Andy led initiatives setting up fabrication operations in China to produce equipment to the ASME NQA-1 and NNSA’s HAF604 specifications.

Andy has successfully driven technology transfer initiatives for dozens of Western energy companies including Babcock & Wilcox, Bechtel, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Energy Solutions and TerraPower.  Andy is a recognized global leader in the field of US-China nuclear energy strategy and has been cited by the Wall Street Journal and the New York Times. Andy has collaborated on numerous initiatives with the US Department of Commerce and Department of Energy related to maximizing commercial opportunities for US companies in China. Additionally, Andy also was part of the core Blu-ray strategy team for Sony in Tokyo, Japan.

Andy has a BS in Chemical Engineering from Columbia University and an MBA from Harvard Business School.


Click below to learn the benefits of galvanizing and galvannealing. 

The 6 Things You Should Double Check Before Sending Out a PO to Your Sheet Metal Supplier

One of the best ways to improve your suppliers’ performance, besides benchmarking and supplier scorecards, is through consistent and accurate communication. While all companies focus on phone calls and email exchanges as their main channels of communication, RFQs, POs, and engineering drawings are undoubtedly the most important communication lane between companies. It’s imperative you set yourself up for success by keeping all lines of communication wide open. In order to do this effectively, knowing exactly what your suppliers need from you on a PO will make communicating easy and stress-free.

Everyone understands there is a cost to incorrect information being communicated to a supplier, but incomplete or ambiguous information can systemically drag on your supply-chain and lead to increased cost and decreased agility. Before sending out your next PO to your supplier, consider these six critical factors that will make their lives, and yours, a lot easier:

1.      Revision Levels – Your purchase orders and the information they contain should mirror the drawings they come with and include all necessary details. First, consider revision levels. Have they been changed? Are they correct? Do they match the drawing? Are they actually on the PO? Additionally, keeping your rev numbers consistent with previous rev numbers will help to ensure your suppliers’ supply chain remains efficient. Asking yourself these questions and keeping revision levels consistent will prevent you needing to field that confused phone call from your supplier.

 

2.      Bending Rules – Being aware and understanding the capabilities of your suppliers’ press brake is very important. If you’re unsure about press brake capabilities, ask yourself the following questions: Are there any holes too close to the bend line? Are there rips required? Are these rips included? Understanding the mechanics and limitations of your suppliers’ press brake is important for you and your engineering team in order to interface efficiently with your sheet metal supplier.

 

3.      Equipment Capacity – Your suppliers’ equipment has limitations – do you know what they are? Knowing this will help you order parts without having to compromise part integrity or quality. Do you know the answer to these questions: What is the max part size your supplier can laser cut? What is the max length they can bend? And at what type/thickness of material? If you don’t know, stop reading this blog and pick up the phone – you and your supplier need to talk more!

 

4.      When Do You Need What?  – Let’s be honest, terms like ASAP are overused and aren’t that useful. Not to mention, front loading due dates to ‘buffer’ for late delivery is very inefficient. Strong suppliers are capable of staging deliveries and shipments to be triggered when they’re needed, in addition to flowing that information back through their production planning activities to ensure their operation is tuned to their customers’ needs. Ask for what you want when you want it and open that dialog with your key suppliers!

 

5.      Incomplete/Erroneous Information – Always double check a PO to ensure your supplier is receiving all the information they need in order to fulfill the order. Glance over the order once more before hitting send to see if anything is incorrectly displayed. Consider these things: Are there any markings on your drawings that are out-of-place or would be considered unexpected to your supplier? Perhaps indicating a grain-finish on carbon steel? Anything that forces the shop floor to hesitate and reconfirm because they’re not sure they understand what they’re looking at will slow your suppliers' supply-chain down.  

6.      Is it similar? – While it’s the suppliers’ responsibility to review all information, and make to the print, if you order the same parts regularly from a supplier and then make a very subtle change in terms of how something is bent or welded, there is a risk that this important difference will get missed on the shop floor because the operators will think they know what they’re looking at when in fact your requirement is slightly different. Use notes in the drawing to call out information you want the operators to be aware of. 

Request for Quote

About the Author:

Andy Mulkerin (General Manager of APX York Sheet Metal) has 20 years of experience leading advanced technology development programs and overseeing global manufacturing operations. He has managed production/operations within the chemical processing, electronics, and commercial nuclear industries. He has worked on multi-billion-dollar investment and infrastructure deals, as well as spent more than a decade advising US companies on how to successfully navigate the Chinese energy market. Andy led initiatives setting up fabrication operations in China to produce equipment to the ASME NQA-1 and NNSA’s HAF604 specifications.

Andy has successfully driven technology transfer initiatives for dozens of Western energy companies including Babcock & Wilcox, Bechtel, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Energy Solutions and TerraPower.  Andy is a recognized global leader in the field of US-China nuclear energy strategy and has been cited by the Wall Street Journal and the New York Times. Andy has collaborated on numerous initiatives with the US Department of Commerce and Department of Energy related to maximizing commercial opportunities for US companies in China. Additionally, Andy also was part of the core Blu-ray strategy team for Sony in Tokyo, Japan.

Andy has a BS in Chemical Engineering from Columbia University and an MBA from Harvard Business School.